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Urbana Poljoprivreda

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Na ovoj temi ćemo raspravljati o urbanoj poljoprivredi, tj. različitim modelima uzgajanja hrane u gradskim sredinama.

Prvi članak opisuje jedan nov (za naše prilike) koncept finansiranja poljoprivrede.
Ukratko, parcela zemlje se tretira kao preduzeće. U donjem primeru, farma ima stotinjak akcionara koji ostvaruju dobit ne u novcu već u poljoprivrednim proizvodima. Akcionari premiraju vlasnika parcele pre setve a za uzvrat imaju pravo na recimo 50kg paprika, 30kg krompira, 40 kg jabuka itd.... Pominju se i drugačiji koncepti, gde se ljudi pretplaćuju na poljoprivredne proizvode, a ponuda je upakovana u više paketa, slično kao kod operatera mobilne telefonije.

Prednosti se ogledaju u privatnom finansiranju individualne poljoprivredne proizvodnje i samim tim većim interesovanjem za razvoj te oblasti, garantovanom kvalitetu namirnica (znate kako je uzgajan npr. kupus - btw. mnogi akcionari dolaze pre vikenda da malo okopavaju zemlju, čisto da ih želja mine :)) i nižim cenama u odnosu na pijace jer nema posrednika. Ljudi jednom nedeljno (ili dvonedeljno) dolaze po namirnice koje su tada aktuelne.

Grad (i država) treba da sprovedu kampanju gde bi se popularizovao ovakav vid nabavka namirnica jer od toga imaju direktnu korist (manje nezaposlenih, veća poljoprivredna proizvodnja i samim tim veća sirovinska baza za proizvode višeg stepena obrade, novac koji se koristi za premiranje poljoprivrede a koji se može utrošiti za druge stvari). Druga stvar koju grad mora da uradi je upoznavanje individualnih poljoprivrednih proizvođača na teritotriji grada sa prednostima ovakvog načina poslovanja u odnosu na klasičan promet robe putem nakupaca ili direktnim iznošenjem proizvoda na pijacu (ovako imaju garantovan otkup proizvoda).

Država će onda moći da proizvodi pšenicu, kukuruz, raž, ovas, ječam, konoplju, suncokret, uljanu i šećernu repicu, lan itd.., kulture koje zahtevaju velika ulaganjau mehanizaciju i navodnjavanje, dok bi se male i srednje privatne kompanije bavile voćem i povrćem koje je isplativije i zahteva manje ulaganja.

Građani će imati veći izbor prilikom nabavke namirnica - od individualnih proizvođača, na pijaci ili u super/hipermarketu, sa većom raznovrsnošću u pogledu kvaliteta i cene namirnica.


Cutting Out the Middlemen, Shoppers Buy Slices of Farms
Carlos Javier Ortiz for The New York Times


By SUSAN SAULNY
Published: July 10, 2008

CAMPTON TOWNSHIP, Ill. — In an environmentally conscious tweak on the typical way of getting food to the table, growing numbers of people are skipping out on grocery stores and even farmers markets and instead going right to the source by buying shares of farms.


On one of the farms, here about 35 miles west of Chicago, Steve Trisko was weeding beets the other day and cutting back a shade tree so baby tomatoes could get sunlight. Mr. Trisko is a retired computer consultant who owns shares in the four-acre Erehwon Farm.

“We decided that it’s in our interest to have a small farm succeed, and have them be able to have a sustainable farm producing good food,” Mr. Trisko said.

Part of a loose but growing network mostly mobilized on the Internet, Erehwon is participating in what is known as community-supported agriculture. About 150 people have bought shares in Erehwon — in essence, hiring personal farmers and turning the old notion of sharecropping on its head.

The concept was imported from Europe and Asia in the 1980s as an alternative marketing and financing arrangement to help combat the often prohibitive costs of small-scale farming. But until recently, it was slow to take root. There were fewer than 100 such farms in the early 1990s, but in the last several years the numbers have grown to close to 1,500, according to academic experts who have followed the trend.

“I think people are becoming more local-minded, and this fits right into that,” said Nichole D. Nazelrod, program coordinator at the Fulton Center for Sustainable Living at Wilson College in Chambersburg, Pa., a national clearinghouse for community-supported farms. “People are seeing ways to come together and work together to make this successful.”

The shareholders of Erehwon Farm have open access to the land and a guaranteed percentage of the season’s harvest of fruit and vegetables for packages that range from about $300 to $900. Arrangements of fresh-cut blossoms twice a month can be included for an extra $120 — or for the deluxe package, $220 will “feed the soul” with weekly bouquets of lilies and sunflowers and other local blooms.

Shareholders are not required to work the fields, but they can if they want, and many do.

Mr. Trisko said his family knows that without his volunteer labor and agreement to share in the financial risk of raising crops, the small organic farm might not survive.

“It’s very hard for them to make ends meet,” he said, “so I decided to go out and help. We harvest, water, pull weeds, whatever they need doing.”

Under the sponsored system, farmers are paid an agreed-upon fee in advance of the growing season, making their survival less dependent on the vicissitudes of the market and the cooperation of the elements. The arrangement involves real farms and real farmers and is distinct from community gardens and other forms of urban farming, where vacant or public land is typically put to agricultural use by residents.

The average share price is $500 to $800 a season across the country, Ms. Nazelrod said, though community-supported agriculture seems most popular on the coasts and around the Great Lakes region. The states with the most farms, she said, include New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and California.

“The C.S.A. provides a base that’s certain, and we get the money when we need to spend the money,” said Beth Propst, who farms the fields at Erehwon, using the abbreviation for community-supported agriculture. “Having the money upfront and guaranteed, that gets us through at least the beginning of the season.”

The operations are as diverse as they are numerous.

Erehwon — the word “nowhere” spelled backward — started with two shareholders, reached its goal of 140 last year, and now has raised its target to about 200 members. Another farm in the Chicago area where the community sponsors the crops, Angelic Organics, makes weekly deliveries to more than 1,400 families in Illinois and Wisconsin.

The Golden Earthworm Organic Farm, on 80 acres on the North Fork of Long Island, grew from 10 members in 2000 to about 1,300 this year, according to Matthew Kurek, one of the owners. About half of the members live in Queens, he said, and the farm delivers their weekly shares to six different sites there, mainly churches and community centers, 26 weeks a year. The farm grows arugula, strawberries and sugar snap peas in the spring; watermelon, eggplant and tomatoes in the summer; and broccoli, potatoes and carrots in the fall.


At the Cattleana Ranch in Omro, Wis., Thomas and Susan Wrchota offer grass-fed meat and organic produce through a community-supported arrangement. They have 55 members, and a seven-month meat membership costs $715.

Mr. Wrchota developed a taste for grass-fed beef while working for the Peace Corps in Costa Rica in the 1970s. When he returned home, he said, he was at a loss for that particular flavor and eventually decided to raise animals himself, starting with just one cow.

“We don’t do millions in revenue, but we make a living, which is rare,” he said. “Our goal is to provide a full portfolio of products for folks who want sustainable products. Up until about five years ago, we had to do a tremendous amount of guerrilla marketing. The consumer who is interested now, they’re doing their homework. They know the health and taste benefits.”

Teresa Crisco is one such consumer in Little Rock, Ark. She is a member of the community-supported agriculture program at the Heifer Ranch, an international humanitarian relief organization that is experimenting with how to make such arrangements more popular and profitable for farmers around the world.

“You feel like you’re doing more than one thing: you’re helping the project and you’re helping yourself,” said Ms. Crisco, a document specialist at a mortgage company who heard about the program from a friend. “The whole premise is really neat.”

Here in Illinois, Erehwon sold out of shares last year and had to turn people away.

Tim Fuller, Ms. Propst’s longtime companion and business partner in running the farm, said: “People are coming to us. We do very little marketing except for explaining what we do. It’s amazing.”

With a wry smile, Mr. Fuller said he considers himself both personal farmer and personal trainer, because shareholders under his direction are going to break a sweat.

“There’s always pressure on,” he said. “This is a complicated business, growing so many crops. We do everything by hand for more than 100 different crops.”

The farm expects to gross between $80,000 and $90,000 this year.

Some shareholders said they found the arrangement a bargain compared to grocery shopping, while others considered it a worthwhile indulgence. Most agreed that the urge to buy and spend locally — to avoid the costs and environmental degradation that come with shipping and storage — was behind the decision to join. Shareholders can pick up their goods at the farm or at a store across the street.

“From a ‘going green’ standpoint, it’s an appropriate thing to do,” said Gerard Brill, a musician who bought a share of Erehwon. “Like everything organic, it’s not a bargain, but what price do you put on being healthy? Considering all things, it’s actually a very good deal.”

The downside for people who are used to grocery shopping comes when they want fresh blueberries in January or, as was the case at Erehwon last week, the tomato plants needed more time in the ground because of a cold spring.

“We eat with the seasons, and there’s no guarantee that Mother Nature will cooperate,” Ms. Propst said. “That’s all part of the deal.”


At least 24 vegetable farmers serve an estimated 6,500 members throughout the five boroughs of New York City, said Paula Lukats of Just Food, which connects farmers with residents there. In 2005, there were 37 C.S.A. groups in the city; today, there are 61.

The Golden Earthworm Organic Farm, on 80 acres on the North Fork of Long Island, grew from 10 members in 2000 to about 1,300 this year, according to Matthew Kurek, one of the owners. About half of the members live in Queens, he said, and the farm delivers their weekly shares to six different sites there, mainly churches and community centers, 26 weeks a year. The farm grows arugula, strawberries and sugar snap peas in the spring; watermelon, eggplant and tomatoes in the summer; and broccoli, potatoes and carrots in the fall.

At the Cattleana Ranch in Omro, Wis., Thomas and Susan Wrchota offer grass-fed meat and organic produce through a community-supported arrangement. They have 55 members, and a seven-month meat membership costs $715.

Mr. Wrchota developed a taste for grass-fed beef while working for the Peace Corps in Costa Rica in the 1970s. When he returned home, he said, he was at a loss for that particular flavor and eventually decided to raise animals himself, starting with just one cow.

“We don’t do millions in revenue, but we make a living, which is rare,” he said. “Our goal is to provide a full portfolio of products for folks who want sustainable products. Up until about five years ago, we had to do a tremendous amount of guerrilla marketing. The consumer who is interested now, they’re doing their homework. They know the health and taste benefits.”

Teresa Crisco is one such consumer in Little Rock, Ark. She is a member of the community-supported agriculture program at the Heifer Ranch, an international humanitarian relief organization that is experimenting with how to make such arrangements more popular and profitable for farmers around the world.

“You feel like you’re doing more than one thing: you’re helping the project and you’re helping yourself,” said Ms. Crisco, a document specialist at a mortgage company who heard about the program from a friend. “The whole premise is really neat.”

Here in Illinois, Erehwon sold out of shares last year and had to turn people away.

Tim Fuller, Ms. Propst’s longtime companion and business partner in running the farm, said: “People are coming to us. We do very little marketing except for explaining what we do. It’s amazing.”

With a wry smile, Mr. Fuller said he considers himself both personal farmer and personal trainer, because shareholders under his direction are going to break a sweat.

“There’s always pressure on,” he said. “This is a complicated business, growing so many crops. We do everything by hand for more than 100 different crops.”

The farm expects to gross between $80,000 and $90,000 this year.

Some shareholders said they found the arrangement a bargain compared to grocery shopping, while others considered it a worthwhile indulgence. Most agreed that the urge to buy and spend locally — to avoid the costs and environmental degradation that come with shipping and storage — was behind the decision to join. Shareholders can pick up their goods at the farm or at a store across the street.

“From a ‘going green’ standpoint, it’s an appropriate thing to do,” said Gerard Brill, a musician who bought a share of Erehwon. “Like everything organic, it’s not a bargain, but what price do you put on being healthy? Considering all things, it’s actually a very good deal.”

The downside for people who are used to grocery shopping comes when they want fresh blueberries in January or, as was the case at Erehwon last week, the tomato plants needed more time in the ground because of a cold spring.

“We eat with the seasons, and there’s no guarantee that Mother Nature will cooperate,” Ms. Propst said. “That’s all part of the deal.”


Izvor: New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/10/us/10farms.html
 

bigvlada

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Ovo je koncept pravih urbanih farmi, tj. solitera u centru grada čija je jedina svrha uzgajanje hrane. Dodatna korist je što građani imaju pijacu (u prizemlju zgrade) u svom bloku, što smanjuje saobraćaj u gradu. Ovakvi soliteri bi se savršeno uklopili kako na Novom Beogradu, tako i preko Dunava, u Beogradu 3.

Prva idealna lokacija na Novom Beogradu je (po meni) oko toplane, tj. da zakloni ono čude nečim zelenim. Grad je već krenuo sa gradnjom neprofitnih stanova. Trebalo bi da jednu zgradu (od 2-3 sprata, ništa specijalno) u prvom sledećem takvom projektu (možda baš u Ovči) nameni za ovu svrhu a kasnije, kada stekne više iskustva, projekat proširi i na ostatak grada.
Prve dve fotografije obuhvataju objekte koje domaće građevinske firme, u saradnji sa Poljoprivrednim i Biološkim Fakultetom, umeju da naprave.
Na potezu je grad.

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Country, the City Version: Farms in the Sky Gain New Interest

By BINA VENKATARAMAN
Published: July 15, 2008

What if “eating local” in Shanghai or New York meant getting your fresh produce from five blocks away? And what if skyscrapers grew off the grid, as verdant, self-sustaining towers where city slickers cultivated their own food?


COWS AND PLOWS? Prototype designs for vertical farms, a concept created in 1999 by Dickson Despommier of Columbia and his graduate students.
Dickson Despommier, a professor of public health at Columbia University, hopes to make these zucchini-in-the-sky visions a reality. Dr. Despommier’s pet project is the “vertical farm,” a concept he created in 1999 with graduate students in his class on medical ecology, the study of how the environment and human health interact.


The idea, which has captured the imagination of several architects in the United States and Europe in the past several years, just caught the eye of another big city dreamer: Scott M. Stringer, the Manhattan borough president.

When Mr. Stringer heard about the concept in June, he said he immediately pictured a “food farm” addition to the New York City skyline. “Obviously we don’t have vast amounts of vacant land,” he said in a phone interview. “But the sky is the limit in Manhattan.” Mr. Stringer’s office is “sketching out what it would take to pilot a vertical farm,” and plans to pitch a feasibility study to the mayor’s office within the next couple of months, he said.

“I think we can really do this,” he added. “We could get the funding.”

Dr. Despommier estimates that it would cost $20 million to $30 million to make a prototype of a vertical farm, but hundreds of millions to build one of the 30-story towers that he suggests could feed 50,000 people. “I’m viewed as kind of an outlier because it’s kind of a crazy idea,” Dr. Despommier, 68, said with a chuckle. “You’d think these are mythological creatures.”

Dr. Despommier, whose name in French means “of the apple trees,” has been spreading the seeds of his radical idea in lectures and through his Web site. He says his ideas are supported by hydroponic vegetable research done by NASA and are made more feasible by the potential to use sun, wind and wastewater as energy sources. Several observers have said Dr. Despommier’s sky-high dreams need to be brought down to earth.

“Why does it have to be 30 stories?” said Jerry Kaufman, professor emeritus of urban and regional planning at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. “Why can’t it be six stories? There’s some exciting potential in the concept, but I think he overstates what can be done.”

Armando Carbonell, chairman of the department of planning and urban form at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy in Cambridge, Mass., called the idea “very provocative.” But it requires a rigorous economic analysis, he added. “Would a tomato in lower Manhattan be able to outbid an investment banker for space in a high-rise? My bet is that the investment banker will pay more.”

Mr. Carbonell questions if a vertical farm could deliver the energy savings its supporters promise. “There’s embodied energy in the concrete and steel and in construction,” he said, adding that the price of land in the city would still outweigh any savings from not having to transport food from afar. “I believe that this general relationship is going to hold, even as transportation costs go up and carbon costs get incorporated into the economic system.”

Some criticism is quite helpful. Stephen Colbert jokingly asserted that vertical farming was elitist when Dr. Despommier appeared in June on “The Colbert Report,” a visit that led to a jump in hits to the project’s Web site from an average of 400 daily to 400,000 the day after the show. Dr. Despommier agrees that more research is needed, and calls the energy calculations his students made for the farms, which would rely solely on alternative energy, “a little bit too optimistic.” He added, “I’m a biologist swimming in very deep water right now.”

“If I were to set myself as a certifier of vertical farms, I would begin with security,” he said. “How do you keep insects and bacteria from invading your crops?” He says growing food in climate-controlled skyscrapers would also protect against hail and other weather-related hazards, ensuring a higher quality food supply for a city, without pesticides or chemical fertilizers.

Architects’ renderings of vertical farms — hybrids of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Biosphere 2 with SimCity appeal — seem to be stirring interest. “It also has to be stunning in terms of the architecture, because it needs to work in terms of social marketing,” Dr. Despommier said. “You want people to say, ‘I want that in my backyard.’ ”

Augustin Rosenstiehl, a French architect who worked with Dr. Despommier to design a template “living tower,” said he thought that any vertical farm proposal needed to be adapted to a specific place. Mr. Rosenstiehl, principal architect for Atelier SOA in Paris, said: “We cannot do a project without knowing where and why and what we are going to cultivate. For example, in Paris, if you grow some wheat, it’s stupid because we have big fields all around the city and lots of wheat and it’s good wheat. There’s no reason to build towers that are very expensive.”

Despite its potential problems, the idea of bringing food closer to the city is gaining traction among pragmatists and dreamers alike. A smaller-scale design of a vertical farm for downtown Seattle won a regional green building contest in 2007 and has piqued the interest of officials in Portland, Ore. The building, a Center for Urban Agriculture designed by architects at Mithun, would supply about a third of the food needed for the 400 people who would live there.

In June at P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center in Queens, a husband-wife architect team built a solar-powered outdoor farm out of stacked rows of cardboard tube planters — one that would not meet Dr. Despommier’s security requirements — with chicken coops for egg collection and an array of fruits and vegetables.

For Dr. Despommier, the high-rise version is on the horizon. “It’s very idealistic and ivory tower and all of that,” he said. “But there’s a real desire to make this happen.”

Izvor: New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/science/15farm.html
 

_Wuk_

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Po meni je glupo da ovako nešto bude u gradu.
Pa ipak to što tu raste treba da bude na čist vazduh,a ne na gradski.

Tu ni zatvorena bašta neće pomoći jer i ona dobija vazduh od negde.
 

jovanovm

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Eh, priroda je cudo, znas kako biljke ciste sve zivo :D Procitaj malo o tome, iznenadices se. Mozda ce ti sve u perspektivu staviti ova cinjenica - na zemlju nije dosao i sa zemlje nije otisao nijedan materijal... sve sto vidimo, jedemo, udisemo je nekako filtrirano kroz sistem prirode... A gradova i to milionskih ima vec hiljadama godina :D
 

_Wuk_

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Ako misliš da jedan taj soliter može da pročisti vazduh oko sebe,grdno se varaš.
Koliko god ga čistio,dolaziće novi,zagadjen vazduh.
 

relja

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He, he. Viseći povrtnjaci. :D
Ja sam za, ideja mi se mnogo dopada, a i bogami lepo izgleda.
 

Steva

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relja":25ny58gm je napisao(la):
He, he. Viseći povrtnjaci. :D
Ja sam za, ideja mi se mnogo dopada, a i bogami lepo izgleda.
Meni takođe.

Ima još jedna stvar. 90% NBGD-a ima ravne krovove, ovo je naravno samo neka ideja, ali zamislite kako bi to bilo moćno kada bi se svi ti krovovi pretvorili u zelene površine i bili povezani mostićima. To bi bila turistička atrakcija par excellence.
 

bigvlada

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Vuče, ove zgrade nisu namenjene pročišćavanju vazduha vće uzgajanju voća i povrća u gradu. Na temi o novim tehnologijama sam postovao slike zgrada koje služe pročišćavanju vazduha pa pogledaj.
 

bigvlada

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PUBLIC FARM 1: Interactive Urban Gardening at PS1 Gallery
by Moe Beitiks

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This summer PS1 Contemporary Art Center, an arm of MOMA, celebrates the 10th year of Warm Up, its annual summer music series, in New York. This year folks who go to catch the DJs and live music will have the opportunity to also visit a farmers market, dip their feet in a cool pool, and generally chill in the shade of Public Farm 1, by Work Architecture Company. It’s a series of recyclable cardboard tubes that grows rainwater-irrigated veggies while providing solar-powered cell-phone charging and community playspace. Whew!

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Among the interactive components of PF1 are swings, cubby hole seats, a periscope, and columns that provide different tactile and acoustic experiences– like being fuzzy or sounding like nighttime. It’s farm as playground. Farm as chill space. Farm as music concert companion. Farm as Fun. It’s a concept as vital to sustainability as the term “organic.” Plus that wading pool looks really nice for a hot day.

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Work AC recently won the 2008 Young Architects award, but readily acknowledges that PF1 came to fruition with the help of a number of groups. The Queens County Farm Museum and the Horticultural Society of New York gave the plants greenhouse space and assisted with other aspects of the project. The watering system and weekly farmers’ market were created with the help of the Council on the Environment of New York. And of course, the PS1 public turned out en masse to provide a festive atmosphere.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/07/21/public-farm-1-at-ps1/#more-12525
 

bigvlada

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Living Walls Provide Local Produce
by Bridgette Steffen

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Green Living Technologies is an innovative landscaping company that is taking advantage of an oft forgotten space to grow plants - walls. Their Green Living™ Wall system uses specially designed recycled aluminum panels to grow herbs, vegetables, fruits and even perennials. These beautiful creations not only enliven a space, but can also provide locally grown food.

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Green Living Technologies recently teamed up with Urban Farming for a project called the “Urban Farming Food Chain”, which installed a Green Living Wall system in a low-income are in Los Angeles.

After the training and installation, the living wall is now taken care of by local residents that are part of a green club, and provides tomatoes, leeks, cucumbers, strawberries and much more. The wall looks amazing, adds so much character to the neighborhood, gives a sense of pride to the residents, and provides healthy, organic produce. Living wall systems could be an excellent way to provide fresh produce in an urban setting and like green roof systems, help to reduce urban heat island effect.

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Installations by Green Living Technologies may be large or very small and can even be connected to a live fish aquarium. One of the most beautiful installations they completed was for the façade of a yoga and fitness studio in NYC. Their Pure Yoga Green Wall looks so soft and inviting and is also incredibly artistic. Truly living art.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/08/20/green-living-technologies-green-walls-produce/#more-13413

Kao što vidite, hrana može da se gaji i na ravnim zidovima :)
 

Vocar

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Hmm, kao neko ko je u ovoj struci, mislim da je ideja kao ideja zaista zanimljiva, atraktivna i mastovita, ali za Beograd potpuno beskorisna. Mislim, ne shvatam poentu, sta se zeli postici? Cemu graditi zgradu na kojoj bi nicalo povrce, uz kompletnu infrastrukturu koju takav poduhvat iziskuje ( i to recimo kod toplane ), ako samo 15ak kilometara dalje u Surcinu i Dobanovcima npr., a da ne govorim o Petrovcicu, Progaru, Ugrinovcima, ili na drugu stranu Besni Fok, Crvenka, Vrbovski....ima toliko plodne zemlje da bi mogla da se ishrane dva Beograda. Ovaj koncept moze biti atraktivan za jedan Sidnej recimo, kome je najbliza njiva od centra grada udaljena 70 kilometara, za Beograd ne. Ova ideja o "zelenim fasadama" mi se mnogo vise svidja. Nemam nista naprotiv da i povrce bude kao zelenilo, ali graditi zgradu kojoj bi iskljucii cilj bio proizvodnja povrca....no comment.
Bolje je za te pare naci nekog poljoprivrednika u Ugrinovcima i dogovoriti se s njim sta i kako da proizvodi i koji deo grada da snabdeva.

Inace sam pobornik ideje da se i neke vocne vrste mogu sasvim lepo uklopiti u gradske parkove, drvorede i sl. Pored hlada i prelepog izgleda u prolece, moze se neko malo i osveziti. Ovde postoji problem oko prskanja ( sto nije, naravno, neophodno ) i nase nekulture ( umesto da uberem dve tri tresnje, ja cu otkinuti granu i poneti je sa sobom ) i bezobrazluka ( obracu sve tresnje pa cu ih prodavati na autobuskoj stanici ).

I da dodam, ovakve zelene fasade bi bile pravi pogodak preko ruznih stambenih zgrada soc-realisticnog tipa ili u NBG blokovima, samo naravno da se prethodno pukotine po fasadama srede, a ne da se zelenilom sakriju.
 

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Da li taj poljoprivrednik u Ugrinovcima može da obezbedi sveže voće i povrće po konkuretnim cenama tokom cele godine? Ovde u cenu nije ugrađena stavka transporta.
U kontrolisanoj atmosferi, bez herbicida, insekticida i fungicida, prinosi su mnogo veći i konstantni tokom godine. Jedna takva fabrika radi u sad-u preko dvadeset godina.

Ovu zgradu shvati kao zamenu za pijacu, bez nakupaca i transporta može da ponudi kvalitetniji proizvod uz nižu cenu. A poljoprivrednik iz Ugrinovaca može da ponudi veće količine sezonskog voća i povrća lancima supermarketa ili fabrikama gde se prerađuje voće i povrće. I mirna Bačka :)
 

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Moze sasvim opusteno da ponudi sveze povrce i voce tokom cele godine. Na Batajnickom drumu, kod naselja 13.maj posluje firma koja u svojim staklenicima cele godine proizvodi svez paradajz, papriku, krastavce i jagode...a osvajaju tehnologiju celogodisnjeg uzgoja lubenice.

Sve i da se ovome nesrecnom Ugrinovcaninu plati prevoz do, lupam, Palilule, to ce biti mnogo jednostavnije i isplativije nego praviti tehno-zgradu u 27.marta.

Kazem, ideja je ok za grdove koji imaju stotine kilometara u precniku. Za Beograd okruzen Lazarevcom, Obrenovcem, Grockom, Surcinom, Padinskom skelom...nepotrebno je.
 

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Posebno to sto poljoprivrednici ne gaje voce i povrce koje ostvaruju marginalni profit...da ne spominjemo zacinsko bilje.
Recimo, da ja zelim svezi ruzmarin, bosiljak, origano...to sada nemam nigde da kupim u Beogradu (recite mi ako znate :)), a ovako lepo gajim i vuk sit i ovce na broju. Da ne spominjem articoke, spargle, rukolu, kineski kupus...
 

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Ja znam coveka koji je gajio sparglu jednu jedinu sezonu...skupio pare od nje i otpoceo posao sa pecurkama. Sada je sampion sampinjona :)
Eto koliko je unosno....ali treba neko da namigne coveku da postoji potreba za tim. Svako bi rado pristao da gaji samo paradajz, ili samo karfiol, cak bi se i neka vrsta zadruge mogla osnovati...ali treba pokazati dobru volju da se tim ljudima pomogne, kako u savetodavnom smislu tako i davanjem vetra u ledja na svaki drugi nacin dok ne izadju na pravi kurs.

Jovanovm, imas dosta plastenika sa kineskim kupusom na surcinskom putu pre samog ulaza u Surcin sa leve strane. E sad da li ga imaju svezeg cele godine....ne znam, nisam pitao.
 

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Voćare, to je možda važilo ranije sada više ne.

Primer: Subota pre podne, pijaca u bloku 44 je avetinjski pusta, kao da je ponedeljak dok su hipermarketi dupke puni. Pijace su već izgubile bitku, samo im to još niko nije rekao.

Jedna od varijanti je onakva komuna gde bi poljoprivrednik iz Ugrinovaca od svonje njive napravio preduzeće i krenuo da traži deoničare koji bi finansirali setvu i gajenje kultura u zamenu za proizvode tokom godine. Model se nalazi u jednom od gornjih postova. Ni u ovakvom modelu poljoprivrednik ne vrši transport robe, već drugi dolaze kod njega.

Plastenik nikada ne može da bude tako efikasan kao što može fabrika za uzgajanje voća i povrća, jer ona jednostavno koristi efikasniju tehnologiju koja se ne može primeniti u plastenicima. Drugo, cena proizvodnje u zgradi je mnogo niža jer mogu da primene sve štoseve koji se tiču konzervacije energije i recikliranja sirovina. Koliko košta zagrevanje plastenika u januaru ili februaru?

Mislim da sam članak o toj staroj fabrici već postovao ovde negde, pokušaću da ga iskopam.

Zgrada nije zamena za poljoprivrednu proizvodnju oko Beograda već za pijacu. A činjenice govore da je postojeći sistem (sa tezgama i nakupcima) zreo za penziju.
 

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Spiraling Skyscraper Farms for a Future Manhattan
by Mike Chino

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As the world’s population continues to skyrocket and cities strain under the increased demand for resources, skyscraper farms offer an inspired approach towards creating sustainable vertical density. One of three finalists in this year’s Evolo Skyscraper Competition Eric Vergne’s Dystopian Farm project envisions a future New York City interspersed with elegantly spiraling biomorphic structures that will harness cutting-edge technology to provide the city with its own self-sustaining food source.

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When considering the future needs of our cities, few urban designs address the world’s burgeoning population better than vertical farms. By 2050 nearly 80% of the world’s population will reside in urban centers, and 109 hectares of arable land will be needed to feed them.

Designed for the Hudson Yard area of Manhattan, Eric Vergne’s Dystopian Farm aims to provide New York with a sustainable food source while creating a dynamic social space that integrates producers with consumers. Based upon the “material logic of plant mechanics”, the biomorphic skyscraper is modeled after the plant cells of ferns and provides space for farms, residential areas, and markets. These organic structures will harness systems such as airoponic watering, nutrient technology and controlled lighting and CO2 levels to meet the food demands of future populations.

In addition to infusing dense urban areas with CO2-consuming green spaces, Vergne envisions the structures as dynamically altering the fabric of city life: “Through food production and consumption, this skyscraper sets up a fluctuation of varying densities and collections of people, bringing together different social and cultural groups, creating new and unforseen urban experiences that form and dissipate within the flux of city life.”

This year’s Evolo Skyscraper Competition resulted in an incredible crop of 416 projects from designers, architects, and engineers in 64 different countries. Their website currently lists the finalists, boiled down to three winners and 15 special mentions.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/02/16/dystopian-farm-by-eric-vergne/#more-19392
 

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SYNTHe: An Urban Rooftop Garden Prototype in Los Angeles
by Haily Zaki

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In a city covered by over 4,000 square miles of asphalt and cinder block, the green roof movement may have just won a serious coup with SYNTHe, an urban rooftop garden prototype designed by SCI-arc professor and architect Alexis Rochas. Located atop the Flat, a downtown Los Angeles residential mid-rise building, SYNTHe is a fertile oasis in the sky that will ultimately grow a variety of edible plants. Through an active collaboration between students, faculty, and city officials, SYNTHe proves that green roofs could indeed have a fruitful future in LA.

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SYNTHe is a self-sufficient ecosystem that could offer a myriad of environmental benefits. Besides helping to filter pollutants, increasing thermal insulation of the roof, and reducing storm water runoff, the roof top garden sets forth a complete productive cycle. Food will be grown, consumed, and ultimately returned to the cycle in the form of compost on the premises.

The design features an alternating landscape of hard and soft surfaces that knit together to form a series of platforms. A prefabricated, suspended metal blanket and specialized recycled plywood frame outline a series of grow channels which are filled with an engineered growth medium (which is much lighter than natural soil). The undulating surface negotiates the space around existing HVAC and mechanical rooftop equipment, offering a 100% usable surface that is tiered for maximum solar exposure.

The prototype garden, part of the Los Angeles Community Garden Council program, is planted with fruit trees and vines, and herbs and vegetables that will be tended and used by residents and the chefs of the well-known ground floor restaurant, Blue Velvet.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/02/09/synthe-green-roof-by-alexis-rochas/#more-19191
 

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Juče je na diskaveriju bila interesantna emisija o tehnologijama koje bi mogle biti upotrebljene u budućem ekopolisu, eco-friendly samodovoljnom gradu.

Tehnologija koja bi najviše smanjila CO2 zagađenje (za 23%) su urbane farme, koje za sada postoje kao prototip u Singapuru (oni ionako imaju gadan problem sa prostorom). Koncept je više puta pominjan, ne koristi se zemlja već biljke vise iznad mešavine vode i hranljivih materija koje se raspršavaju prskalicom na korenje ili se koristi obična pumpa iz malog kućnog akvarijuma. Sistem se može instalirati na svaki ravan krov ili kao nezavisna zgrada.

Najzanimljivije su mi bile brojke, jedna takva zgrada od 49 spratova (dva PC ušće jedan na drugom) menja 17 hektara zemljišta i dovoljna je da podmiri potrebe 50.000 ljudi za svežim voćem i povrćem, nezavisno od godišnjih doba. Dakle, za Novi Beograd bi bilo dovoljno 8-10 duplo manjih zgrada (kao pola jednog bloka, naravno zgrade bi bile raštrkane) dok se brojka za ceo grad kreće u rasponu 80 - 100 plus još dvadesetak radi rezerve.

Takva zgrada bi imala i par podzemnih spratova gde bi do izražaja došla druga tehnologija, zvučni frižider. :D

Osnova ideje je da se iskoristi energija koju prenosi zvučni talas za hlađenje (ili grejanje). Nema pokretnih delova, ne treba mu ona mreža cevi pozadi, motor, pumpa niti bilo kakvo podmazivanje. Postoji izvor zvuka koja se prenosi do posebne vrste zvučnika. Većina današnjih zvućnika radi na širokom opsegu frekvencija (niski, srednji, visoki) dok ovaj radi samo na jednoj frekvenciji pa mu je efikasnost mnogo veća. Jačina: Aktivni vulkan može da proizvede 180dB (decibela), dok ova spravica ima jačinu od 198dB. Pošto bi svako ogluveo pored ovoga, ceo sistem je u izolovanom metalnom kućištu gde se za prenos zvuka ne koristi vazduh već helijum. Emitovanjem zvučnog talasa u helijumu se na nekim mestima javlja veći a na nekim manji pritisak, tj. neki atomi postaju topliji a neki hladniji. Mašina tople atome zadržava a hladnije šeta po frižideru. Temperatura se izuzetno precizno može definisati potenciometrom, tj. odvrneš zvuk malo jače da dobiješ hladnije namirnice. :) Frižider može da ohladi stvari do -177C. Još nije implementiran način da se iskoristi i toplota, ali to je čisto tehnički, ne konceptualni problem. Mogu da pretpostavim da će svaki sprat biti namenjen vrstama voća i povrća iz različitih klimatskih zona kojima treba više ili manje vode i toplote. Zvučni frižideri mogu da obezbede hlađenje i zagrevanje po potrebi. Jedina mana je što prototip frižidera koji bi mogao da zameni običan kuhinjski (dakle oko 200-250l) košta 10.000 dolara.

Treći štos je korišćenje kanalizacije kao izvora vode. Naime, umesto da se voda delimično prečisti i ispusti nazad u reku, jeftinije je (imajte u vidu energiju potebnu da se ta voda upumpa u sistem, iskoristi, baci, prečisti i ispumpa u reku) da voda cirkuliše između vodovoda i kanalizacije. Prvi sloj filtera čisti krupan otpad, drugi sve što je preko 0.2 mikrometra dok je poslednji specijalitet, obrnuta osmoza. Ideja je da se napravi membrana kroz koju će moći da prođu molekuli vode ali ne i virusi i bakterije. Ako molekul vode predstavite kao tenisku lopticu, virus je veličine automobila a bakterija veličine zgrade. Dovoljno male rupice u materijalu propuštaju samo vodu. Za svaki slučaj, na kraju se koristi ultraljubičasta svetlost da poubija bilo šta što se eventualno provuklo.

Dakle, imaćemo zgradu u komšiluku gde ćemo kupovati mango i jagode u januaru, i čuvati ih u frižiderima koji urlaju u tišini. :D
 

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Soaring Seawater Farms for a Self-Sufficient Dubai
by Alexandra Kain

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Dubai is a burgeoning metropolis surrounded by seawater that relies on imports for nearly all of its food. Addressing the region’s lack of natural resources, Italian architects Studiomobile have conceived of a Seawater Vertical Farm that draws upon local resources to create a sustainable source of food for a cleaner, greener and more self-sufficient Dubai. Envisioned as a spire that branches off into soaring sky-gardens, the design uses seawater to create an ecosystem conducive to growing crops amid the clouds.

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Agriculture consumes nearly 70% of the world’s fresh water, which leaves many areas of the earth subject to shortages of this essential resource. Saltwater, on the other hand, is available in abundance around the globe, which makes sustainable desalination an enticing option for producing potable water for food production. Dubai’s lack of fertile soil and fresh water make it a perfect candidate for seawater farms, which stand to cut down on the emirate’s regular truckloads of goods while significantly reducing the region’s oil dependency and greenhouse gas emissions.

Based upon the design of Seawater Greenhouses in Oman and the Gran Canarias, Studiomobile’s ‘Seawater Vertical Farm’ utilizes seawater to cool and humidify the air that ventilates multiple greenhouses, while sunlight distills the saltwater into fresh water to provide life for thousands of plants. Whereas most of today’s desalination plants rely on costly and energy-intensive boiling and pumping, the Seawater Vertical Farm works in a passive manner, continuously cycling through 3 phases for a year-round supply of food.

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In the first phase, incoming seawater is evaporated to condition the air of the tower, creating a humid environment that is perfect for growing crops. Next, the air is pushed out of the greenhouse and through another evaporator that mixes the humid air with warm air from the outside. In the third phase, the hot humid air is pushed upwards due to the stack effect. On the way up, fresh water condense around tubes of cool seawater and as drops accumulate they fall into a collection tank which then waters the crops. In a city known its arid landscape and experimental architecture, the Seawater Vertical Farm offers an enticing source of sustainable agriculture, although its implementation may be quite a ways off granted the current economic climate.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/03/09/seawater-farming-solution-for-the-arid-emirates/#more-20090

Dizajn je jako zanimljiv, a pošto se ovo sigurno neće graditi u Dubaiju (koji grca u dugovima, morali su da traže 20 milijardi dolara pomoći od vlade UAE) Crnogorci bi mogli da urade nešto slično, pored solane se ionako niko ne kupa.
 

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The Incredible Edible House of the Future
by Bridgette Steffen

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Will the house of the future be centered around growing our own food? That’s part of what the Wall Street Journal attempted to find out this week in their feature, “The Green House of the Future.” Author Alex Frangos asked four well-known architects to design the house of the future, which is energy-efficient and sustainable, but under no budget constraints or restraints on how we currently live. Our favorite design was the “Incredible Edible House,” by LA-based Rios Clementi Hale Studios, which is clearly an out-of-the-box concept for a sustainable 3-story house that doubles as a vertical garden.

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The Edible House is constructed out of three prefab containers stacked on top of one another. As prefab and container homes become more popular, the house of the future will very likely contain a number of prefab elements, which reduce resource consumption and are more efficient to produce over the long run. Since the three containers are stacked on top of each other, the home’s footprint is quite small, which as the designers say, is a “nod to the importance of building dense, urban-style houses in order to reduce energy use.” The three floors house the eating and living space on the bottom, sleeping rooms in the middle, and office/studio space along with a glorious deck on the top.

Vertical axis wind turbines are mounted along the roof placed in front of an evaporative cooling reservoir. This integrated energy production and cooling system will reduce energy usage dramatically. Additionally, a photovoltaic awning is mounted over the top deck for both energy production and shading. Adjustable doors on the sides of the house allow for natural cross ventilation.

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Attached in front of the prefabricated modules is a hydroponic skin that covers the living quarters with a multitude of plant, vegetables and fruits. A living wall on the outside of the house acts to reduce heat gain to the house, thus reducing cooling load, and is watered with a rainwater collection system. The best part about the house is the ability to walk out on the deck to pick your vegetables for the night’s dinner from your own edible garden.

Besides Rios Clementi Hale Studios, the WSJ also asked world-renowned William McDonough + Partners, Cook + Fox, and Mouzon Design to offer their ideas. These brilliant architects designed amazing homes centered around integrated systems, gardens, solar power, innovative exteriors and smart design to make the house more useful for the inhabitants inside. We would love to see any four of these design come to fruition.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/04/30/the-incredible-edible-house-of-the-future/#more-26682

Možemo da počneom sa nečim ovakvim, na malo, pa polako da krenemo ka pravim poljoprivrednim zgradama. :)
 

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Food City: Dubai’s Self-Sufficient Ecotopia
by Ariel Schwartz

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This past February, the Dubai Chamber of Commerce authorized the development of a “free zone” dubbed Food City. GCLA, a green landscape architect firm, proposed a master plan for the city sector to turn it into an incredible off-the-grid, self-sufficient metropolis. GCLA’s future-forward urban quarter incorporates an extensive list of sustainable urban planning ideas, including vertically stacked landscape surfaces, artificial roof landscapes, renewable energy systems, aquatic farms, and thermal conditioning.

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GCLA has described their proposal for Food City as the “the marriage of landscapes and urbanism“. Their project integrates a variety of proposals to decrease overall energy use — concentrated solar collectors, towers covered in thin-film photovoltaic cells, piezoelectric pads in pedestrian areas, and methane harvesting through sewage percolation tanks.

GCLA also proposes water conservation measures critical to off-the-grid survival in water-starved Dubai, like atmospheric water harvesting, solar desalination through concentrated solar collectors, grey water recycling, and application of hydroponic sand to minimize water loss. Essentially, GCLA’s vision is an amalgamation of nearly every urban sustainability initiative in the past few years. It’s certainly utopian, but it may ultimately prove necessary.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/05/13/a-utopian-vision-for-food-city-dubai/#more-28860

Ovi nemaju novca za ovo, ali su predložene tehnologije svakako interesantne.
 

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Ovo je već realnije, farma u Vankuveru.

Amazing Skyscraper Farm for Vancouver
by Bridgette Steffen

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Vertical farms are one of our favorite future-forward concepts for creating sustainable cities. Providing locally-grown produce and food will not only help us reduce our carbon emissions significantly, but also help us become healthier. Romses Architects recently came up with an amazing concept for a vertical farm in Vancouver as part of the City’s 2030 Challenge. Complete with a tower for growing fruits and vegetables, a livestock grazing plane, a boutique dairy farm, commercial space, transit lines, renewable energy and more, the Harvest Green Tower has the potential to be a food growing, energy producing, living, breathing sustainable transit hub.

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The City of Vancouver has ambitious plans to become the most sustainable city in the world. This spring they held the FormShift Vancouver Competition to develop and improve the city’s livability through greener, denser developments. The Harvest Green Tower received an honorable mention in the Primary category for a mixed use primary (arterial) site along a major Vancouver street that includes a rapid transit station. Their vertical farm concept is centered around sustainable food production as well as the creation of a multi-purpose space that can house, transport, feed and entertain people.

The tower consists of interlocking tubes that grow various fruits and vegetables, house chickens and contain an aquaponic fish farm. On top of the vertical growing tower is a rainwater cistern to collect and help water all the plants and animals. At the base of the tower is a livestock grazing plain, as well as a bird habitat and boutique sheep and goat dairy facility. Underneath that is a grocery store, farmer’s market and Harvest Tower Restaurant. Renewable energy is produced from rooftop mounted wind turbines and photovoltaic glazing on the building with the additional help of geothermal heat pumps and methane generation from composting.

Not only would the tower produce local, organic food, but it would also support people with live/work units off to the side of the tower, an educational center, and a seed lab. The base of the tower features a transit hub along with an underground parking lot and shared car co-op. The tower would play an important role in the production of locally grown foods, provide urban employment opportunities and contribute sustainable density to Vancouver.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/05/11/amazing-skyscraper-farm-for-vancouver/#more-28433
 
Vrh